The overvoltages known as transients, are very short duration increases in voltage, measured between two conductors, or between conductor and ground. These can be due to atmospheric electric discharges (lightning strikes) or to switching or fault processes (contact to earth or short circuit).
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Surge protection devices (SPDs) are designed to minimise the destructive effects of surges on electrical and electronic equipment. There are different types of SPDs depending on the technology they include and what characterises their operation against transient overvoltages.
With the increasing reliance on interconnected equipment in the domestic and business sectors, adequate surge protection is essential for the maintenance of any business. The replacement of any damaged element or its rapid degradation entails large financial outlays that are sometimes difficult to bear. Overheating, on the other hand, increases the likelihood of fire and, consequently, personal injury.