The overvoltages known as transients, are very short duration increases in voltage, measured between two conductors, or between conductor and ground. These can be due to atmospheric electric discharges (lightning strikes) or to switching or fault processes (contact to earth or short circuit).
Lightning protection of satellite and spacecraft launch platforms is essential. We recently discussed the importance of preventive protection for the authorisation of rocket launches. In this article we will discuss engineering of protection against direct or near impacts by means of external and internal protection.
The use of LED lighting has become an increasingly popular option for public and private urban lighting, due to its numerous advantages over traditional lighting. In some countries, it is even mandatory according to legislation. Long-term energy savings are behind this trend, but given its initial cost, it is imperative for LED lighting to be protected against transient overvoltages to ensure its correct operation.
Surge protection devices (SPDs) are designed to minimise the destructive effects of surges on electrical and electronic equipment. There are different types of SPDs depending on the technology they include and what characterises their operation against transient overvoltages.